INDIAN HISTORY - DELHI SULTANS

                   :    INDIAN HISTORY - DELHI SULTANS

During the medival period Muslims ruled India from 1206 to 1526.  The Muslim rulers who ruled India during this period were known as Delhi Sultans.  They ruled India with their capital Delhi.  There were five dynasties who ruled Delhi Sultanate.  The were Slave, Khilji,Tughluq, Sayyid, and Lodi dynasties.
            Muhammad Ghori appointed Qutb-ud-din-Aibak as viceroy to the regions he conquered in India.  After the death of Muhammad Ghori Qutb-ud-din-Aibak declared independence in 1206.  Aibak being a slave his dynasty waas called as Slave dynasty.  Thus, the rule of Slave dynasty started in 1206 A.D.  Some prominent rulers of this dynasty were Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Balban, and Razia Sultana.  Iltutmish succeeded Aibak and suppressed various revolts.  He merged Bengal and Bihar with Delhi.   A Mongol invasion took place during his reign.
            Balban was most famous among Slave rulers of Delhi Sultanate.  He kept chihal gain under control and appointed spies to inform about their activites.  He introduced Persian traditions of Sjda and Paibos.  Sijda means  greeting the kissing the feet or throne of sultan.   He took various measures to protect his kingdom from the Mongol invasions.  He strengthened the army and repaired the old forts and put them under the control of trusted military officers.  He appointed his son as incharge of border forts.  He punished provincial governors severely when they revolt against him.   Tugril Khan of Bengal was severely punished by him as he revolted against him.  Kaikubad was the last ruler in the Slave dynasty.  The rule of Slave dynasty came to end in 1290 A.D.
            After the Slave dynasty, Delhi Sultanate was ruled by Khilji dynasty.  Jalaluddin Khilji who was the first ruler of this dynasty ascended the throne in 1290 A.D.  He ruled upto 1296 A.D.  After him Aluddin Khilji came to throme.  He was not only greatest among Khilji rulers but also greatest among Delhi Sultans.  He ascended the throne inn 1296 A.D.  His market reforms made him very famous.  He invaded Chittor, Ranthambor, Malwa etc.. in North India and brought them under his control.  He sent his commander Malik Kaffer to invade on Suouth Indian kingdoms.  Malik Kaffer defeated Yadavas, Hoyasalas, Kakatiyas and Pandyas  and they agree to pay tribute (tax) to Sultan.
The rule of Aluddin Khilji came to end in 1316 A.D.  Mubarak Khilji and Khusru became Sultans after him but they were weak.  So the nobles invited Ghiyas-ud-din Thugluq to Delhi.  He ascended the throne in 1320 A.D by defeating the last Khilji ruler.  His rule came to end in 1325 A.D
            After Ghiyasuddin Thugluq, Muhammad-Bin-Tughluq ascended the throne in 1325 A.D.  Though he was a learned man and had good qualities he was known as mad Tughluq due to failure of his new innovasions and idea in administration.  He thought that it was better to have the capital in the middle of the kingdom.  So he shifted the capital form Delhi to Devagiri.  But it was failed and he got many problems.  Later the capital was transferred back to Delhi.  During his reign two kingdoms such as Vijayanagara and Bahmani were emerged in South.  His rule came to end in 1351 A.D.  After him Feroz shah Tughluq succeeded the throne.  He introduced Jagirdari system and encouraged Ulemas.  The reign of Tughluqs came to end with  the Timur invasion in 1398 A.D.  The Sayyands and Lodies who were succeeded after Tughluqs were not competent.  During the period of last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi, Baber invaded India.  Baber defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of first Panipat in 1526 and established Mughal rule in India from Delhi.

DELHI SULTANS - ADMINISTRATION

Saliant features of administration of Delhi Sultanate are as followns:

Sultan divided the kingdom into Iktas. Ikta was headed by a officer called ‘Mukti’.

The Mukti, officer of Iktak, had to maintain army from the income of Ikta and remit the balance to Sultan.

The Iqtas were divided into Shiqs.

The Shiqs were again divided into Parganas.

The state was a theocratic state.Sultans ruled as per Quron i.e.Shariat.

Sultan was a superior authority in the state.

Diwani Ariz was incharge of army.

Sultan army consisted of cavalry, elephantry and infantry.

Alauddin Khilji abolished jagirdari system and gave the salaries to the army.

Alauddin Khilji introduced market reforms and regulated the market prices. These measures taken by the Alaudding Khilji prevented the inflation.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq introduced copper coins in 1329 and also carried out experiments in agriculture to increase production.

Balban brought more land for cultivation by cutting forests.

Feroz Tughluq dug canals for irrigation and made waste lands brought under cultivation. The canals from Sutlez to Saga, Mandavi to Hissar and Jamuna to Ferozabad were dug.

Delhi Sultans except Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Bin Tughluq were puppets in the hands of the Ulemas (Muslim religious heads).

Purdah system previled among Muslims.

Sati was practisd by certain communities.